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lunes, 28 de enero de 2013

What is Vodou?

Columbus Meets the TainoVodou is a spiritual tradition which originated in Haiti during the period of French colonial slavery. Today, Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola, Haiti on the western side of the island and the Dominican Republic in the east.

The Vodou tradition has roots in three major ethnic groups. First were the indigenous populations of Taino and other Arawak people. Early in the colonial history of Hispaniola, they were exterminated by the Spanish. Their struggle, their uprisings, and their eventual defeat was chronicled by historians of the day, and little of their spiritual traditions survive in contemporary Vodou.

Second, Africans of many ethnic lineages were transported by force to Haiti by both the Spanish and later by the French in great numbers, primarily to serve as agricultural slaves. There was some contact between escaped Africans and the few surviving Tainos, but little is documented. French colonists in Haiti imported Africans primarily but not exclusively from those regions of Africa colonized by France.

It is from the many African ethnic groups brought to Haiti that most of Vodou ceremonial practice is derived, including respect for ancestors, communication with sacred spirits called lwathrough the phenomenon of trance possession.

Because so many African groups were represented, no one particular African service could satisfy all participants, especially since reverence for ancestral lines was so important. Therefore, each ethnic group would take it's turn at a gathering. This "take turns" approach eventually evolved into the ceremonial order of the Vodou liturgy.

Third, during this historical period, Europeans from France and other countries, including pro-Stuart deportees from the British Isles during the Stuart Wars, also settled in Haiti. Their contributions include the Catholic popular piety of the day, their folk beliefs, and also certain spiritual entities. For example, the Celtic pre-Christian goddess Brigid became Maman Brigitte, the mother of all reclaimed ancestors.

There are denominations of Haitian traditional religion, just as the Christian religion includes Roman Catholics and Baptists. The first and most widely known, is the orthodox Vodou. In this denomination, Dahomean, Nigerian and Kongo lwa are given primary importance, and initiations are conducted based mainly on Dahomean practices. A priest or priestess recieves the asson, a ceremonial rattle, as an emblem of priesthood. In this rite, a priest is known as aHoungan or sometimes gangan, a priestess is known as a Mambo.

Vodou is widely represented in all of Haiti, and is especially dominant in Port-au-Prince, southward and westward.

The second most popular denomination is called Makaya. Leaders of Makaya congregations are not initiated and do not receive the asson. A Makaya priest is called a Bokor, and a priestess is sometimes referred to as a sorciere, sorceress. However, most Makaya leaders are men, female Makaya priests are rare. (The terms bokor and sorciere are considered pejorative in the orthodox Vodou, and bokor can also refer to an uninitiated specialist in malevolent magic, also called malfacteur. Such individuals are not clergy in any denomination.) The Makaya liturgy is less uniform from peristyle to peristyle than the orthodox Vodou, and there is a stronger emphasis on magic as opposed to religion. This rite is present in Port-au-Prince, and is strongly represented in the Artibonite Valley in central Haiti.

A third denomination is the Kongo rite. As the name implies, it is almost exclusively representative of the Kongo tradition. A priest or priestess of this line is called a serviteur. (In orthodox Vodou, a serviteur is merely one who serves the lwa, the deities of Vodou.) This rite is concentrated near Gonaives in central Haiti, and an annual Kongo festival is held in Sucrie near Gonaives.

All of these traditions have several beliefs in common: There is only one God, called Gran Met, or Great Master; and also Bondye, from the French Bon Dieu, Good God. There are lesser entities are called lwa, and though they vary from rite to rite, they are all considered immediately accessible through the mechanism of spirit possession. Possession in the context of a ceremony is considered normal, natural, and highly desirable, not demonic or satanic. All rites employ prayer, song, drumming, costume, and dancing during ceremonies.


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VOODOO LOVE SPELLS: brujoinca@gmail.com

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