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lunes, 28 de enero de 2013

Names and grades of Initiatory Levels in Vodou

Vever of Ayizan, Patroness of InitiationsThere are a series of levels of initiation in orthodox Vodou. All levels of initiation are open to men and women.

An uninitiated person who attends ceremonies, receives counsel and medical treatment from a Houngan or Mambo, and takes part in Vodou related activities is called a Vodouisant. This is a general term, like "Christian" or "Buddhist".

An uninitiated person who is associated with a particular peristyle, attends ceremonies regularly, and appears to be preparing for initiation is sometimes referred to as a hounsi bossale, but this is a colloquial and even humorous term. Bossale means "wild" or "untamed", in the sense of an untamed saddle horse. Hounsi is from the Fon language of Dahomey, and signifies "bride of the spirit", although the term in Haiti refers to men and women. Despite this term, initiates are not considered to be married to the lwa. A person, whether initiated or not, can marry a lwa, but this is a different ceremony unrelated to initiation.

The first grade of initiation confers the title hounsi kanzoKanzo, also from the Fon, refers to fire, and the fire ceremony, also called kanzo, gives it's name to the entire initiatory cycle. Individuals who are kanzo might be likened to confirmed members of a Christian denomination. At a Vodou ceremony, the hounsis kanzo wear white clothing, form the choir, and are likely candidates for possession by a lwa.

The second grade of initiation is referred to as si pwensur point in French. This term refers to the fact that the individual undergoes further ceremonies, "on the point" or on the patronage, of a particular lwa. The person is then considered to be a Houngan or Mambo, and is permitted to use the asson, or sacred rattle emblematic of priesthood. Individuals who are si pwen might be likened to ministers of Christian denomination. At a ceremony, they lead prayers and songs, conduct rituals, and are almost inevitable candidates for possession.

Peristyle Mural DetailThe third, and final, grade of initiation is referred to as asogwe. A Houngan or Mambo asogwe might be likened to a bishop in a Christian denomination, as they can consecrate other priests. Individuals who are asogwe may initiate other individuals as kanzo senp, si pwen, or asogwe. At a ceremony they are the final authority on procedure, unless a lwa is present and manifest through the mechanism of possession. They are also the last resort when the presence of a particular lwa is required. A Houngan or Mambo asogwe is said to "have the asson", the ceremonial rattle emblematic of priesthood, given to them by the lwa Papa Loko Atisou. This means that they, and they alone, can confer the asson on another individual, thereby elevating that individual in turn to the status of asogwe.

These grades do not have to be achieved sequentially, from the lowest to the highest - most Haitians who initiate at the highest level,asogwe, do so in their first initiation ceremoniesin order to save time and money, although some will become si pwen first and then become asogwe in a second initiation cycle several years later. Most Haitians who initiate at the lowest level, that of hounsi kanzo, never go further.

Even a Houngan or Mambo asogwe must defer to the Houngan or Mambo who initiated him or her, to those in the same peristyle who were initiated at the same grade prior to him or her, to the person who initiated their initiatory Houngan or Mambo and to that individual's initiates, and so on. These relationships can grow rather complicated, and there is a point in an orthodox Vodou ceremony where all Houngans and Mambos, sur point and asogwe, participate in a series of ritual gestures and embraces which serve to elucidate and regulate these relationships.

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